The Final Rule: Disposal of Coal Combustion Residuals from Electric Utilities was signed by EPA Administrator, Gina McCarthy, on December 19, 2014 and a pre-publication copy of the Final Rule was released several weeks ago, but the Final Rule is only now appearing in the Federal Register at 80 F.R. 21302, with an effective date of October 14, 2015. The EPA summarized the Final Rule as providing a comprehensive set of requirements for the safe disposal of coal combustion residuals (CCRs), commonly known as coal ash, from coal-fired power plants. It is purportedly the culmination of extensive study on the effects of coal ash on the environment and public health. The Final Rule establishes technical requirements for CCR landfills and surface impoundments under subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the nation’s primary law for regulating solid waste. The Final Rule makes a number of changes from the proposed rule, including providing greater clarity on technical requirements in response to questions received during the comment period on the proposed rule. The EPA states that any major enforcement of these new rules will primarily be the responsibility of the states and through RCRA’s citizen suit authority. The Federal Register version of the Final Rule is almost 200 pages.