On October 18, in Landry’s, Inc. and Houston Aquarium, Inc. v. Animal Legal Defense Fund, et al., the Texas Fourteenth Court of Appeals, sitting in Houston, affirmed the trial court’s dismissal of a lawsuit alleging that the defendants, including the Animal Defense Fund, defamed the plaintiffs’ business with the publication of their notice of intent to sue the plaintiffs under the Endangered Species Act (ESA).
In another recent U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit decision, on October 1, 2018, the Fifth Circuit affirmed, in part, the District Court’s ruling that the general federal statute of limitations, 28 U.S.C. § 2462, required the dismissal of the government’s civil enforcement action in the case of U.S., et al., v. Luminant Generation Co., LLC, et al.
The Fifth Circuit agreed that the statute barred the imposition of any civil fine for the alleged unlawful construction operations regarding the modification of major emitting facilities contrary to Section 7475(a) of the Clean Air Act (CAA). But, the Fifth Circuit remanded the injunctive-relief claims to the District Court for further consideration.
On September 21, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit issued a ruling interpreting potential liability under the Oil Pollution Act (OPA). In U.S. v. Nature’s Way Marine, LLC, the Fifth Circuit affirmed the holding of the District Court that, under OPA, the owner of a tugboat moving oil barges down the Mississippi which later collided with a bridge, spilling seven thousand gallons of oil, was itself an ”operator” subject to liability under the law.
On September 27, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit affirmed the District Court’s ruling that the “Zero Emissions Credit” (ZEC) program of the New York Public Service Commission is not unconstitutional. The case is Coalition for Competitive Electricity, et al. v. Zibelman, Chair of the New York Public Service Commission, et al.
In early October, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit rules in two Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) cases:
Giovani v. U.S. Department of the Navy
On October 2, the Third Circuit decided the case of Giovanni, et al., v. U.S. Department of the Navy. Affirming the District Court’s ruling in part, the Third Circuit’s view is that:
“[The claim for a health assessment or health effects study is barred, as the District Court said, because it challenges ongoing cleanup efforts. But we will vacate and remand in part because we conclude that the medical monitoring claim is not a challenge under CERCLA and that it is not barred by sovereign immunity.”
On October 26, in the case of Day v. Johns Hopkins Health Sys. Corp., divided panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit affirmed the District Court’s ruling that the common law “Witness Litigation Privilege” protects an expert witness in a Black Lung Benefits Act benefits proceeding against civil claims that allege a federal RICO violation and Maryland state law claims for fraud, tortious interference, negligent misrepresentation and unjust enrichment attended the testimony of the expert witness.
In a Memorandum dated October 19, 2018 and entitled Promoting the Reliable Supply and Delivery of Water in the West, the President has directed the Secretaries of the Interior and Commerce to work together to minimize “unnecessary regulatory burdens and foster more efficient decision-making” so that major federal water projects are constructed and operated in a manner that delivers water and power in an “efficient, cost-effective way.” More specifically, they will take steps to streamline the western water infrastructure regulatory processes and remove unnecessary burdens in accordance with the timetables set forth in the Memorandum.
The Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, housed in the Office of Management and Budget, has issued the Fall 2018 Unified Agenda of Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions to be taken over the next several months by federal executive departments and agencies. This report will highlight some of the environmental actions, to be proposed or finalized soon by these agencies. Eventually, the Agenda will be published in the Federal Register.
1. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
EPA, of course, has listed by far the largest number of actions. For instance, EPA’s agenda lists 92 separate actions to be taken under its Clean Air Act (CAA) authority. As an example, EPA reports that it will issue a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) in May 2019 of its proposals to increase consistency and true transparency in considering the cost benefit of its proposed rules, and review the standards of performance for new, modified, and reconstructed sources of greenhouse gas emissions by means of an NPRM to be issued in November 2018.
In other matters:
- A revised definition of “waters of the US” under the Clean Water Act (CWA) will be proposed in October 2018 that would revive the pre-2015 regulatory definition of this term.
- An NPRM will be published in June 2019 to consider changes to EPA’s existing CWA Section 404 permit reviews (of Corps of Engineer permits).
- An Advanced NPRM will be published in December 2018 regarding revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) standards for the management of liquids in landfills, namely, municipal solid waste landfills.
- In July 2019, EPA will publish an NPRM regarding the need to develop financial responsibility rules under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, known also as Superfund (CERCLA) Section 108(b) for facilities that are most likely to be involved in CERCLA cleanups, in particular petroleum refineries and coal products producers. The agency has declined to issue such rules for the hard rock mining industry, a decision that is being challenged in the courts.
- In October 2018, EPA will publish an NPRM regarding the revised CERCLA and Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA) reporting requirements for air emissions from animal waste, as the Congress has amended the law to permit this to be done.
- In November 2018, EPA will publish an NPRM regarding the RCRA regulation and notification requirements affecting the disposal of coal combustion residue (CCR) wastes that are placed in units closing for cause. This will be followed by the publication of a final rule in June 2019 to modify the CCR Disposal rules promulgated In April 2015.
- In November 2018, EPA will publish an NPRM under RCRA regarding the revision of the existing “flash point method” of determining a hazardous waste characteristic.
- In January 2019, EPA plans to publish a final rule regarding its revisions to the January 2017 CAA Section 112 Risk Management Program rules.
- In September 2019, EPA plans to issue this final rule adding aerosol waste cans to the 40 C.F.R. Part 273 RCRA Universal Waste rules. This action should lessen the regulatory burden placed on retail stores.
- In September 2019, EPA plans to issue a final rule regarding its decision whether to propose additional regulatory requirements relating to the spill prevention and reporting requirements under Section 311 of the CWA. EPA has indicated that it believes that no such action is warranted at this time.
2. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE).
The Corps has significant regulatory and enforcement authority under the CWA. Several actions have been listed by the ACOE including:
- In June 2019, the Corps will publish an NPRM regarding the ACOE’s administrative appeal procedures. In the wake of the Supreme Court’s ruling in U.S. Army Corps of Engineers v. Hawkes, ACOE wants to amend these rules to require that a party exhaust its administrative appeal remedies before it can appeal a CWA jurisdictional determination to the federal courts.
- In December 2018, the Corps will issue an NPRM by which it intends to update its natural disaster response procedures affecting flood control projects following its experience with several recent hurricanes. The Corps is seeking ways to enhance its flexibility in responding to these emergencies.
- In June 2019, the Corps, in response to Executive Order 13782, will consider proposals to previse and streamline aspects of its CWA nationwide permitting program affecting domestic energy production.
3. U.S. Coast Guard
- In December 2018, the Coast Guard will publish an NPRM to amend its vessel financial responsibility rules to include tank vessels greater that 100 gross tons. The reporting requirements will be enhanced and will reflect current “best practices”.
- Because of the passage of time, in October 2018, the Coast Guard will issue a Notice of Withdrawal of a 1996 proposed rule that would address tank vessel response plans for hazardous substances.
4. Department of the Interior
- In September 2019, the Department of the Interior will issue an NPRM to discuss proposals to streamline its NEPA procedures by increasing the number of categorical exclusions and to update the Department’s existing rules.
- The Department’s Bureau of Environmental Management (BOEM), which has significant offshore responsibilities, will issue an NPRM in October 2018 to revise and modify its financial assurance rules for offshore lessees.
- In March 2019, BOEM will issue an NPRM seeking comment on its proposals to deregulate and streamline renewable energy rules that apply offshore, without decreasing environmental safeguards.
- In December, the Department’s Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSSE) office will issue final rules revising its Blowout Preventer and Well Control requirements. These are rules affected by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill.
- In November 20018, the Fish and Wildlife Service will release an NPRM which will propose to establish regulations defining the scope to the Migratory Bird Treaty Act’s application to the incidental taking of birds protected by the Act resulting from an otherwise lawful activity.
5. Department of Transportation
- The Department’s Pipeline and Hazardous Material Safety Administration (PHMSA) will issue a final rule in November 2018 that will expand the applicability of comprehensive oil spill response plans requirements to an entire train that is shipping flammable liquid energy products. The agency is interested in developing rules to mitigate the effects of potential train accidents involving the release of these products into the environment.
6. Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ)
- The CEQ will release an NPRM in February 2019, seeking comments on its proposals to amend its NEPA rules (which apply throughout the federal government) to enhance and modernize the Federal environmental review and authorization process.
In Ohio Supreme Court Finds Subcontractor’s Faulty Workmanship Causing Damage to the Work Itself Not Covered under CGL Policy, my colleague Matt Stockwell discusses a decision last week by the Ohio Supreme Court, in Ohio Northern University v. Charles Construction Services, Inc., that unfortunately narrowed the scope of insurance coverage for a subcontractor’s faulty workmanship. The Court held that a subcontractor’s faulty workmanship in a construction defect case is not an “occurrence” under standard-form commercial general liability (CGL) policies in Ohio.
The Committee on Foreign Investments in the United States (CFIUS) is an inter-agency committee designed to review foreign investments that raise national security concerns. While you may have seen CFIUS play a role in prior transactions, upcoming expanded regulations will further impact acquisitions of U.S. real estate.
How exactly will this occur?